e. Dressing. The term "dressing" refers to the material that is placed directly
over the wound. The dressing absorbs some of the blood and helps a clot to form. The
clot "plugs" the wound to stop the bleeding. The dressing also protects the wound from
f. Bandage. A bandage is the material used to hold (secure) the dressing in
place so the dressing will not slip and destroy the clot that is forming. The end of the
bandage is called the tail.
g. Tourniquet. A tourniquet is a device for compressing the blood vessels of an
extremity in order to stop blood flow distal to the tourniquet band.
h. Distal. Distal means away from the point of reference. In this lesson, the
heart is the central point. The hand is distal to the elbow because the hand is farther
from the heart than is the elbow. (Follow the path of blood flow from the heart through
the arteries as a guideline.) It is the opposite of proximal.
i. Proximal. Proximal means toward the point of reference (heart). The knee is
proximal to the foot because the knee is closer to the heart (following blood flow) than is
the foot. It is the opposite of distal.
j. Amputation. Amputation is used to refer to the condition where a body part
has been severed from the rest of the body.
An amputation is "complete" if the body part has been completely
An amputation is "partial" if the body part is still attached by skin.
Section II. PROCEDURES FOR CONTROLLING BLEEDING
PREPARING THE WOUND
It is assumed that you and the casualty are in an area where you can safely
administer first aid, that you are not in a chemical environment, that you have
already evaluated the casualty as explained in Lesson 2, and the casualty is
breathing on his own.
a. Put on Gloves. Put on examination gloves found in the casualty's first aid kit.
The gloves will help to protect you from the casualty's fluids and also to help reduce the
Monitor the casualty's respirations, especially if he is unconscious. If the
casualty stops breathing, administer mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose