Section I. GENERAL
The leading preventable cause of death on the battlefield is bleeding from an
extremity. Bleeding (hemorrhaging) from an extremity can usually be controlled by
applying an emergency bandage, by applying manual pressure and elevating the
injured limb, by applying pressure to pressure points, and by applying tourniquets. If
bleeding from an extremity is not controlled, shock could result. Hypovolemic (low
blood volume) shock can result in the casualty's death.
Although the procedures are given for administering buddy-aid to a fellow
soldier, they can also be used in administering treatment to yourself (self-aid).
As you go through this lesson, it will be helpful to know the meaning of certain
terms as they are used in this subcourse.
a. Extremity. One of the limbs.
(1) Upper extremity. Upper extremity refers to the arm (located between the
shoulder and the elbow) and the forearm (located between the elbow and the wrist).
Often, the term "arm" is used to refer to the arm, forearm, and hand. The terms "upper
arm" and "lower arm" are sometimes used to refer to the arm and forearm respectively.
(2) Lower extremity. Lower extremity refers to the thigh (located between
the hip and the knee) and the leg (located between the knee and the ankle). Often, the
term "leg" is used to refer to the thigh, leg, and foot. The terms "upper leg" and "lower
leg" are sometimes used to refer to the thigh and leg respectively.
b. Hemorrhage. Hemorrhage is another word for bleeding. It is usually used to
refer to serious bleeding.
c Artery. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the
parts of the body.
d. Vein. Veins are blood vessels that carry blood from the parts of the body
back to the heart.