(2) Determine level of consciousness by using AVPU (A = Alert;
V = responds to Voice; P = responds to Pain; U = Unresponsive). See paragraph 1-4c
of Lesson 1 for additional information.
If the casualty is alert or responds to voice, do not check the casualty's
response to pain.
To check a casualty's response to pain, rub his breastbone briskly with a
knuckle or squeeze his fist.
b. If the casualty is conscious, ask where it hurts or where his body feels
different than usual. This helps to determine the level of responsiveness and provides
you with information that can be used when treating the casualty.
c. If the casualty is unconscious, position the casualty on his back, open his
airway (Lesson 3) and check for breathing. Opening his airway may result in the
casualty's level of consciousness being upgraded.
d. If the casualty is conscious, evaluate his breathing and see if a
nasopharyngeal airway is needed.
POSITIONING THE CASUALTY ON HIS BACK
Position the casualty on his back if he is not already lying on his back. To turn a
casualty lying on his front onto his back, perform the following steps.
It is assumed that you and the casualty are in a protected area. If you are still
exposed to enemy fire, apply a tourniquet to control any severe bleeding and
move the casualty and yourself to a safe location.
a. Kneel beside the casualty with your knees near his shoulders, leaving space
to roll the body.
b. Take the casualty's arm that is nearest to you and move it so that it is straight
and above his head. Repeat the procedure with the other arm.
c. Adjust the casualty's legs so that they are together and straight or nearly
d. Place one hand behind the head or neck for support.
e. Reach across the casualty with your free hand and grasp the casualty under
the far arm (armpit area).