c. Camouflage. The difference between concealment and camouflage is that concealment is using
natural terrain to hide your presence and camouflage is constructing concealment. In addition to
hiding your equipment, you can also use mud for glassy surfaces and unfilled sandbags over
windshields to avoid detection (Figure 18). Camouflage is one of your basic weapons of war.
You must completely understand the importance, the principles, and the techniques of camouflage.
In addition, you will ensure the effectiveness of all camouflage measures. You are responsible for
the strict enforcement of camouflage discipline.
3. Employ Damage Limiting Measures. Another type of passive air defense, damage limiting,
will also help you survive. These measures are an attempt to limit any damage you may receive if
the enemy detects your position. If the enemy is to destroy your equipment, make him do it one
piece at a time. Do not allow your unit to be put out of action with just a single attack.
Apply the same measures you take to limit damage from artillery attack--dispersion, protective
construction, and the use of cover. Large bombs will seldom, if ever, be used against troops on the
ground. Most munitions delivered by aircraft must make a direct hit to be effective.
Dispersed troops, vehicles and equipment will force the attacker to concentrate on a single small
target that will likely be missed. The wider the dispersion, the greater the potential is for limiting
Your use of cover, natural or manmade, acts to reduce damage and casualties. Folds in the earth,
natural depressions, trees, buildings, and walls offer damage limiting cover which you should seek
out and use habitually. If deployment is in flat terrain lacking cover, digging in or sandbagging can
offer you some protection. If you are moving and cannot use natural cover or cannot build
fortifications, try using smoke. Smoke makes target acquisition much more difficult for the
The intent here is to emphasize to you the importance of passive defense against an air attack. Do
everything you can to avoid an attack in the first place. Not succeeding in that aim, then at least
use cover and dispersion to limit the amount of damage to your unit.