PART A - RECOGNIZE THE THREAT
1. Identify Threat Airframes.
The primary aerial threats that must be countered include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's) such
as the SHMEL-1, DR-3 REYS, and D-4 NPU in addition to cruise missiles (CM) like the AS-4
KITCHEN, AS-15 KENT, and C-101. Also, rotary wing (RW) attack helicopters including the
Mi-8 HIP, Mi-24 HIND D/E, and Mi-28 HAVOC; close air support (CAS), ground-attack,
fixed-wing (FW) aircraft such as the Su-25 FROGFOOT, MiG-27 FLOGGER D/J, and MiG-
. These aircraft will conduct reconnaissance,
surveillance, interdiction, antiarmor,
and troop support missions. Only occasional attack by high-performance aircraft can be expected
along the line of contact.
Elements in the division corps rear, especially nuclear delivery means, command and control
facilities, and reserve forces, can expect repeated attacks by high-performance aircraft. These
attacks will occur early in the war, with a lessening of attack frequency after about three days.
Expect attacks in the early morning. Pilots are rested and their aircraft are readied for the first
sortie of the day. The danger of attack increases again near noon and in the early evening.
However, surveillance for threat aircraft is a 24-hour a day mission. The enemy's order of battle,
combat capability, readiness, and will to fight are some of the factors that will determine the times
and rates of sorties. Convoys of troops, as well as supply trains, will always be vulnerable targets,
especially as they concentrate at choke points along the convoy route.
The threat generally will consist of UAV's, attack helicopters and close air support (CAS) aircraft
in the forward area near lines of contact, and ground attack fighter-bombers in the rear areas and
against convoys. Because these types of aircraft differ in their capabilities and in the manner in
which they conduct tactical operations, they present distinctly different threat profiles.
2. Identify Threat Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
UAVs are your most common air threat. They are inexpensive, easily procured or manufactured,
and versatile. There are over 100 UAV programs being pursued by at least 35 countries. Their
small radar cross sections (RCS) make them very difficult to detect and track. Payloads may
consist of radar seekers, high explosive warheads, forward looking infrared (FLIR) cameras, laser
designators, television (TV), thermal imaging devices, chaff, decoy and electronic attack
capabilities. Ranges vary from 25 to 800 kms, and the upper limit of flight endurance reaches 72
surveillance and target acquisition (RISTA), suppression of enemy air defense, ground attack,
UAVs to locate friendly maneuver forces and key assets with the ability to pass real-time
information back to enemy long-range attack systems, is the greatest near term concern for short
range air defense and the force commander.) Three potential threat unmanned aerial vehicles, the
SHMEL-1, DR-3 REYS, and D4 NPU are shown in figure 2.