a. Dynamite. Air platforms are inbound or are attacking; response is immediate.
b. Lookout. Air platforms are in the area of interest, but are not threatening, or they are
inbound, but there is time to react.
c. Snowman. No air platforms pose a threat at this time.
LADWs do more than describe the current level of air threat in the immediate area.
They also require specific air defense reactions from receiving units. Unit commanders must
establish in their tactical standing operating procedures (TSOPs) what they want their units to do
when a LADW is received.
4. Identify Directed Early Warning (DEW). It is essential that all Army units receive early
warning, especially those units that have minimal air defense coverage. DEW is provided by the
supporting ADA unit. It is early warning that is focused to alert a particular unit, units, or area of
the battlefield. Early warning is quick, simple and redundant in nature and is reported to the
supported unit by the ADA liaison officer. It is also passed over the supported unit command net.
The DEW format is nothing more than a simplified SALUTE report. The report is passed as flash
traffic. A sample report might be as follows: "Dynamite! Dynamite! Four Hinds heading east at
phase line blue." The location of the target may be reported using grid coordinates or reference to
5. Use Small Unit Warning. Your defense will be much more effective if you know in
advance that an air attack is imminent. Initial attack warnings will normally come from higher
headquarters and you can increase timely alerting if you establish an air attack warning system
within your unit. Assign air watch personnel and set up a system of alarms to warn your unit of an
a. Assign Air Guards in Unit Area of Operation. A map reconnaissance of your unit's
area of operation will reveal the most likely areas from which aircraft can attack (avenues of
approach). Assign air guards to watch the back sides of woodlines, ridgelines, and significant
folds in the terrain for helicopters and other attack aircraft. Your local observation post (OP)
personnel will have air watch as part of their duties. If an OP does not have a good view of the
airspace in its area, position a special air guard to search that sector. Rotate air guards frequently,
because scanning for long periods of time dulls the ability to detect aircraft.
b. Assign Air Guards in a Convoy. Assign an air guard to each vehicle. Anyone on the
vehicle, other than the driver, may perform this duty. Check your map. Mark narrow valleys, and
any other terrain features that may force your unit to pinch together. Assign specific search sectors
to each air guard, keeping those trouble spots in mind. If the convoy lasts more than an hour, have
the soldiers take turns so that they will remain alert.
c. Use Air Attack Alarms. To provide a standard method of disseminating emergency
warnings within North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) forces, the US armed forces have
concurred in the provisions of Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 2047, Emergency Alarms of
Hazard or Attack (NBC and Air Attack Only). Pertinent extracts at table 1.