a.

80 ohms

b.

50 volts

c.

ER1 = 40 V, ER2 = 30 V, ER3 = 50 V

A practical application of the laws of DC series circuits is

demonstrated in the study of batteries. A battery is made up of two

or more cells which may be connected in series, parallel, or series-

parallel combinations. This lesson is concerned with the series

configuration only.

When connecting cells to form a battery, the voltage and current

requirements for the particular application determine the method of

connection. The advantage of connecting cells in series is that a

higher output voltage is obtained. The voltage law for a series

circuit states that the sum of the voltage drops around a closed

circuit is equal to the applied voltage, or

Et, = E1 + E2 + E3

Therefore, when battery cells are connected in series, the total

voltage is equal to the sum of the cell voltages, as shown below.