Select the requirement for chemical stability of an atom.
a. All electron shells must be complete.
b. The valence shell must contain its maximum number of electrons.
c. The number of electrons must equal the number of protons in the
d. The number of electrons must equal the number of subshells.
25. Atoms, in general, are electrically more stable as the number of their valence
electrons approaches eight. When an atom has less than four valence
electrons, it will easily give them up for conduction; therefore, it is said to be
a conductor. Copper, gold, and silver, considered to be among the best
conductors, have atoms with one valence electron each. Atoms with more
than four valence electrons do not easily give up electrons for conduction
and are referred to an insulators. Atoms, such as in germanium and silicon,
that contain exactly four valence electrons are called semiconductors.