entering the target area and those which provide the best FofF for the aircraft
once it reaches the target area. Similarly, the analysis must consider where air
defense assets can best be hidden from observation, and retain good FofF against
the primary air avenues of approach and mobility corridors.
CONCEALMENT AND COVER
Many of the air-related aspects of concealment and cover have been discussed under
observation and FofF. Friendly force operations require cover from aerial direct
fires, especially antitank fires, and concealment from aerial R&S. Similarly, the
enemy will attempt to use terrain to provide cover from direct fires and to conceal
their operations from friendly R&S.
Rotary-wing and some fixed-wing attack aircraft will attempt to use the terrain for
cover from direct fire and to conceal their presence by loitering on the reverse
slopes of hills, and employing pop-up tactics to acquire and engage targets.
Rotary-wing aircraft will also attempt to use vegetation as a backdrop to enhance
aircraft camouflage. Fixed-wing attack aircraft will attempt to fly as low as
possible to maximize the effects of aircraft camouflage, to best use their great
speeds to negate enemy air defense target acquisition and to become lost in the
ground clutter of what is referred to as "look down-shoot down" radar systems. All
types of aircraft will attempt to use masked areas to prevent detection by visual
observation, target acquisition systems, and air defense weapons. When feasible,
aircraft will attempt to blind observers by attacking out of the sun. This tactic
is most often used by high performance counterair aircraft.
While not considered as either concealment or cover in the strictest sense, nap-of-
the-earth (NOE) flight enhances both fixed and rotary-wing aircraft survivability.
An NOE flight makes the optimum use of available terrain for concealment and cover,
and hinders quick countering responses by ground forces and air defense assets.
Air LZs and DZs, especially small unit LZ or DZs, require concealment from
observation and at least some measure of cover from the effects of indirect fires.
Airborne and air assault forces require adequate concealment to hide movement away
from the LZ and DZ, and sufficient cover to protect them from indirect and direct
fires during movement to their objectives.
FARPs require adequate concealment to prevent their detection by R&S assets, and
adequate cover from indirect fires. The latter is especially critical due to the
extreme vulnerability of aircraft while on the ground and the open storage of
aircraft fuels and ammunition at the FARP. Concealment is also critical when
evaluating ground approaches or LOCs to a FARP. FARPs cannot be placed in terrain
where reconnaissance or maneuver assets can approach undetected, nor in terrain so