PART C: ENEMY DOCTRINE
The Intelligence Analyst is the resident expert on enemy tactical doctrine. Based upon
his knowledge, the US tactical commander makes decisions that may jeopardize the lives
of thousands of US soldiers. Enemy doctrine, as studied by the Intelligence Analyst, is
the conduct of operations an enemy commander will most likely use during a battle.
PART D: INTELLIGENCE PREPARATION OF THE BATTLEFIELD (IPB)
1. IPB is a key to preparing for the next battle. It is a systematic, continuous, never
ending process that provides a basis for all intelligence and tactical operations.
2. IPB integrates enemy doctrine with the weather and terrain as they relate to the
mission and the specific battlefield environment. It provides a basis for determining and
evaluating enemy capabilities, vulnerabilities, and probable courses of action (COA).
3. The Intelligence Analyst performs the IPB process in conjunction with the
Topographic Engineers and the Air Force Staff Weather Officer.
There are four steps used in the IPB process.
a. Define the Battlefield Environment. (Step 1) Determine the limits of the
battlefield by identifying the area of operations (AO) and area of interest (AI). The
analyst accomplishes this by setting parameters in time, boundaries in space, and the
characteristics of the battlefield environment that may be significant in accomplishing the
b. Describe the Battlefield's Effects. (Step 2) Determine the affects that weather
and terrain have on battlefield operations. The OCOKA (observation, concealment and
cover obstacles, key terrain features, and avenues of approach) factors are very important
when trying to analyze terrain. The analyst accomplishes this by fully exploring what the
environment encourages and discourages in the way of friendly and threat COAs by
analysis of all characteristics of the battlefield environment that may affect operations.
c. Evaluate the Threat. (Step 3) Establish threat models and intelligence data bases
in order to determine how the threat normally organizes for combat and conducts
operations under similar conditions.