PART A: CAMOUFLAGE USES
1. A good working definition of camouflage is: "Any method of concealing or
disguising an activity or installation to mislead the enemy as to position,
strength, and possible course of action." Contrary to popular belief,
camouflage is not strictly a defensive measure but can be used either
defensively or offensively depending on the nature of the mission.
2. Camouflage is used in concealment as follows:
a. Tactical uses of camouflage include the concealment of military
equipment or units by the use of paint, natural or artificial vegetation,
snow, smoke, or misrepresentation.
b. Strategic uses include the concealment of vitally important areas or
installations, such as ammunition factories, oil refineries, power plants,
PART B: CAMOUFLAGE DETECTION
1. The activities of humans leave some type of mark or record on the
earth's surface (Figure 1-1).
When left by a military unit, these marks
will differ from those left by a civilian activity. The IA seeks evidence
of enemy movement and deployment of troops and defensive measures through
analysis of aerial imagery; based on this analysis the IA may determine the
enemy's strength and capabilities.
2. In military observation, the IA must be able to determine the enemy's
movement and deployment by observing the enemy and analyzing its equipment.
Military observation may be divided into two broad areas:
Direct or ground observation.
Indirect or air observation.
3. Direct observation refers to that process whereby the observer sees the
subject physically, that is, with the eyes--aided or unaided. Examples of
this type of observation include an observer sitting on a hilltop with
binoculars or an aerial observer viewing the landscape from an aircraft.
a. Direct observation has many advantages.
(1) It offers immediate information on which action may be based.
(2) The picture is seen
the true third dimension and
evaluated by the brain.
(3) The eye is normally an accurate and sensitive receiver.