1. General indicators of defensive measures are economics, spoil, track
activity, camouflage, and relationship to the FEBA.
There is a disregard for the economical use of the land.
Armored and wheeled vehicles will drive through crops and cultivated fields.
Trench systems, antitank ditches, and gun positions will be found any place
the military situation dictates.
The earthen spoil around foxholes, trenches, and
emplacements will not conform to the pattern of civilian construction or
activity. The tone and texture of freshly turned dirt on aerial imagery are
4. Track Activity. The most important and probably the best indications of
defensive measures are the telltale marks left by the military when on the
move. Civilians stay on existing routes while military vehicles, equipment,
and personnel move to points dictated by the situation.
Most tracks left
behind are difficult if not Impossible to hide.
5. Camouflage advertises the military attempt to hide or deceive.
camouflage discipline is at its maximum, it only points the finger to
defensive measures In the field.
Readily detected, poor camouflage only
invites the IA to make a closer examination.
6. Relationship to the FEBA.
Military doctrine is universal in that one
emplacements, trenches and bunkers on the front lines. An IA would not look
for artillery emplacements on the front lines.
A knowledge and
understanding of the tactics and a capabilities of an enemy will aid IAs in
Economics, spoil, track activity, and especially camouflage
are general indicators of defensive measures in conventional warfare. They
are also employed in unconventional warfare.
However, when considering
relationship to the FEBA, the IA must think of relationship of activity to
the surrounding local area.
Since there is no FEBA in an unconventional
war, the IA must be on the lookout for indicators of defensive measures