b. Locating artillery and missile launch sites on aerial imagery is an
important and, at times, difficult task for an IA. It requires full use of
the five basic factors of identification and the use of information from
other intelligence sources and agencies, such as technical intelligence,
order of battle, and interrogation personnel. Antiaircraft artillery (AAA)
is easier to locate than field artillery because it is usually found in the
open. It is difficult to camouflage and bears little or no resemblance or
relationship to natural or civilian surroundings. With the extended use of
surface-to-air missiles and rockets, it is expected fewer of these
installations will be seen.
c. Artillery and AAA guns can also be dug in to minimize damage from
aircraft or incoming artillery. The spoil is usually put around the edges
to increase the height of the protective wall. This spoil will show up on
aerial imagery (Figure 2-12).
Figures 2-13 through 2-17 are sketches and
images of artillery and AAA emplacements you may encounter during analysis.
DO NOT confuse artillery positions with large bomb craters which can
best be identified by their depth.
d. Aircraft revetments are similar to these except, instead of being dug-
in, walls are erected up around them.
Sometimes overhead cover is also
used. Again, the idea is to minimize the damage caused during an attack or
because of sabotage.
Once artillery is located on aerial imagery, an
attempt is made to classify it by examining the weapon site and associated
equipment and determining the ground dimensions of the emplacements.
The term artillery is all encompassing and includes the weapon,
weapon site, ammunition storage, command posts, and fire direction
or control center.