(1) Housing units must also provide ample air and sunlight for health and
morale. This is usually done by placing a large number of windows in narrow rectangular
buildings. On oblique or ground imagery, these windows are a dominant recognition
feature of personnel housing.
(2) There are usually roads throughout the housing area, but they are seldom
laid out to provide specific access to individual buildings. A rail line or spur may pass
near or through a housing area, but it does not terminate there.
b. Military housing facilities can usually be classified into one of three types:
permanent, cantonment, or expedient. The basic factors used to classify housing are the
construction material, structural features, location, arrangement, and density of buildings.
(1) Permanent housing is constructed of durable material--usually brick, stone,
cinder block, concrete, stucco, or a combination. Most permanent barracks are two or
three stories high with hipped and pitched roofs, though many have gabled roofs. The
most common roofing materials are composition shingles, tile, and slate. A military
installation with permanent-type housing is sometimes called a garrison.
(2) Cantonment or temporary housing is usually constructed of wood. The
buildings are seldom more than one or two stories high. Pitched and hipped roofs,
shingled or covered by strips of composition, are most common. Cantonment is used for
mass troop billeting, particularly in training and maneuver areas. A military area with
cantonment housing is frequently called a camp.
(3) Expedient housing. The third class of personnel housing includes huts,
tents, and commandeered buildings grouped under the heading of expedient housing.
(a) Huts may be constructed from a variety of materials, including mud,
grass, and bamboo. These construction materials blend in with their surroundings (a
(b) Tents, versatile and easily transported, are practical for armies on the
move. Because troops must become accustomed to their use, tents are often seen in
training and maneuver areas.
(c) Commandeered housing can be any housing which satisfies a military
requirement. Vehicular activity, military equipment, and defenses in the vicinity of the
building indicate military use.
c. Headquarters. High-echelon headquarters seldom have military characteristics.
They normally appear as large office buildings in the capital city of a country. You usually
need ground information to identify the specific building serving as headquarters.