PART A: IDENTIFICATION FEATURES OF INDUSTRIES IN GENERAL
1. The term industry includes those establishments engaged in the extraction of raw materials,
the processing of these same materials, and the production of intermediate and finished products,
as well as certain utilities and services useful to the civilian and military economy.
2. Nearly all major industrial facilities, regardless of function, have certain common physical
features that are specifically characteristic. The ability of the imagery analyst (IA) to recognize
these features and characteristics will greatly aid in identifying the facility as an industry, and may
further aid in the specific identification of the type of industry. Among those features of industrial
facilities which are commonly identifiable on aerial photography are:
a. Fuel reserves. Depending upon the type of fuel consumed at the facility, you may
Coal storage piles (black even texture).
Petroleum storage tanks (revetted).
Nearby hydroelectric generation facilities (usually adjacent to a waterfalls or dam).
Electrical transfer facilities (substations, transformers, etc.).
b. Water source(s). Many industrial facilities require enormous quantities of water for
generating steam, cooling, and for disposal of effluents (waste by-products). The alert IA may
Adjacent or nearby rivers, streams, or canals.
Lakes or ponds.
Oceans or seas.
Bays, harbors, or estuaries (tributaries of oceans, seas, or lakes).
c. Waste processing or disposal facilities. Many of the waste by-products of industrial
operations are treated on site prior to disposal. Imagery may indicate the presence of:
Settling tanks or ponds.
Waste treatment tanks or ponds.
Waste reprocessing areas.