enemy collection activities. Destruction of the collector, jamming, and specific counter human intelligence
(HUMINT), counter signals intelligence (SIGINT) and counter imagery intelligence (IMINT) operations fall
into this category.
Deception measures are those measures designed to mislead the enemy by manipulation, distortion, or
falsification of evidence to induce the enemy to react in a manner against his interests.
Based on the results of the risk analysis, protective measures are selected to minimize activity vulnerabilities.
When adversary collection cannot be denied, deception operation planning should be undertaken. All of the
information, input, and OPSEC measures recommended by the various staff planners should be reported back to
the operations staff to be incorporated into the OPSEC plan.
An OPSEC plan is a supporting plan. It should be designed to support or enhance its affiliated operation plan.
A plan is merely a method or scene for military action. It is a proposal to carry out a command decision or
project. As part of the overall planning process, a plan represents the command's preparation in a specific area
to meet a particular event. Although plans are based on specific conditions or assumptions, they are not static.
Plans are changed, refined, and updated as a result of continuing estimates and studies. The two essential
elements of a plan are a definite course of action and a method for execution.
A good plan provides for accomplishing the mission, which is the objective of all planning. It is based on facts
and valid assumptions. All pertinent data has been considered for accuracy and assumptions. The data has also
been reduced to a minimum. A good plan provides for the use of existing resources. These include resources
organic to the organization and those available from higher headquarters. It should provide for necessary
organization. It clearly establishes relationships and fixes responsibilities. Arrangements are spelled out for the
personnel, material, and other items deemed necessary for the full period of the contemplated operation.
Decentralization should be provided for an authority delegated to the maximum extent consistent with the
necessary control. Procedures for establishing coordination between all levels of command involved in the
operation are completely spelled out. All essential elements are reduced to their simplest form and elements not
essential to successful action are eliminated. Room should be left for adjustments as necessary.
A good plan also provides for adequate control to carry out the plan according to the commander's intent. All
elements of the plan must fit together. Control measures must be complete and understandable, and mutual
support requirements are identified and provided for.
Coordination. Coordination is nothing more than making sure that all the "pieces" fit together in an integrated
whole. Most actions require coordination that extends beyond the headquarters of the command and includes
higher, adjacent, lower, and supporting headquarters. Coordination is essential for three reasons:
To ensure complete and coherent actions.
To avoid conflict and duplication by making necessary adjustments in plans and policies before their
To ensure all factors which may have impact on the implementation of the plan have been considered.