electronics (C-E) officer, looks to both the friendly and enemy use of the
assignment and use, and oversees the reporting and processing of all MIJI
incidents. In this way, frequency management is tied to the whole EP system.
f. Hostile EW activities reduce the effectiveness of U.S. Army systems
which require radiated electromagnetic energy for their operational use.
devices and techniques are applied to reduce the vulnerability of these systems
to EW, limit the effect of EW on the operational capabilities of these systems,
and permit their continued use in the presence of EW.
EP are the
responsibility of every soldier who uses or supervises the use of electronic
g. Fortunately, there are many preventive and remedial measures we can
take to help counter hostile EW.
Preventive measures include short
transmissions, correct radio procedures, and net discipline. These preventive
measures reduce your electronic signature.
h. Remedial measures are used once you suspect you have become the victim
of enemy EW. Be sure that the interference is in fact jamming and not a form
in resolving whether the problem is internal or external, that is, if the noise
stops, it is external, if it continues, it is a good indication it could be the
i. To conduct ES or EA, the planner must know the frequency of the target
to ensure that it is within the capability of our EW systems. EW planners must
ensure that there is compatibility in modulation. Our tactical radios operate
using one or two common forms of modulation - amplitude modulated (AM) as with
our radio teletypewriter (RATT) or frequency modulated (FM) as used in our very
high frequency (VHF) single-channel radios, like the VRC-12 series radio. Both
AM and FM transmitters produce representative fraction (RF) carriers.
modulated by changing its amplitude, frequency, or phase. Thus, the RF carrier
Modulation is the process of
superimposing intelligence (voice or coded signals) on the carrier.
frequency modulated signals, the amplitude of the signal remains constant but
the frequency changes.
On amplitude modulated communication signals, the
frequency of the wave stays the same but the amplitude changes. When operating
in an EW environment, FM is preferred. (See Figure 1-6, AM vs FM modulation.)
rule of thumb is that the higher the frequency, the shorter the radio waves and
the more direct the signal becomes. For planning EW operations, the radio path
a given radio signal is likely to follow, must be known.
k. The majority of U.S. and enemy communications in the tactical arena use
whip antennas. Though the whip antenna lends itself to a mobile situation, it
has inherent operational security weaknesses.
omnidirectional in that the signal is transmitted 360 degrees.
environment, an enemy EW system that is capable of intercepting the direct wave
can exploit the signal by monitoring or locating it for targeting by physical
destruction or jamming.
Successful EW is contingent upon relative distance,
equipment, user, and enemy similarities in frequency bands and modulation.