(4) Expendable jammers (EXJAMs) are used to overcome the LOS and
distance limitations of stand-off systems. Their proximity to target receivers
to friendly systems. EXJAMs can be hand emplaced or air delivered. They are
normally employed in an array to disrupt communications over a large area.
EXJAMs are generally capable of the same types of jamming - spot, sweep, or
barrage - as other jammers.
d. Step 4.
Control and coordination are essential to
effective EW operations.
Communications are the key to effective control.
Secure, reliable communications are required for:
Tasking and technical support.
Control of jamming operations.
Tipoff and queing between collector and jammers, both air and
ground, to include DF.
Coordination between jammers.
Resource status reporting.
Mission status reporting.
e. Step 5. Jamming Control. Control of jamming operations is essential
to their success. Control keeps jamming directed at HPT while minimizing its
effects on friendly systems and operations.
Either positive or negative
control methods may be used. However, a combination of both is generally used
for maximum coordination between the EA teams and the command they are
There are two types of EA frequency control, positive and
negative. Positive control methods include:
(1) Positive controls include:
a. Authorizing specific frequencies for jamming on an individual
basis, or by publishing a list of frequencies cleared for jamming.
b. On-off control which allows for the immediate starting or
stopping of jamming. Reliable communications are required, and the command's
ability to exercise this type of control must be verified prior to its
implementation. On-off control usually is exercised by the MI Bn TOC, but may
be held by the G3 or delegated to lower echelons as circumstances dictate. It
is the most centralized form of control.
(2) Negative control is exercised through the publication of frequencies
restricted from jamming. These lists coordinate the use of the electromagnetic
spectrum to impose a minimum of restrictions on jamming or frequency usage.
They are grouped into TABOO, PROTECTED, and