This includes companies through divisions, and on occasion
corps. Tactics are applied primarily in engagements and battles.
The tactical level involves the advantageous application of firepower.
Movement is to better dispose firepower to bring about favorable combat
Tactics are the direct application or execution of physical
Tactics achieve a very physical effect.
They can achieve
destruction of the elements of an enemy force.
Tactics can also achieve
direct denial of enemy objectives.
Indirect means or the threat of destruction may on occasion cause an enemy
little physical destruction. But this cannot be taken for granted at this
level. At the tactical level, warfare has primarily a close-in land battle
orientation. Airbattle and depth are important at this level, but they are
not normally the dominant elements.
Tactics deal with the conduct of
current operations or the "now battle". They are subject to constant change
depending on the current situation.
Operational Level. The operational level deals with combat by large units.
This includes divisions, corps, armies, and army groups. It is the planning
and conduct of battles and campaigns of a sustained nature.
The operational level focuses on the broad conduct of operations.
long-range in outlook. It seeks to establish a general plan for the defeat
of the enemy.
The tactical level involves the current application of
The operational level involves the anticipation of the
outcome of successive engagements or battles.
It involves the choice to
fight or avoid battle.
Maneuver at this level is not a single act.
Rather, it is a series or
simultaneous set of actions.
The larger the unit, the more time required
The requirement for anticipation is also greater.
requires a focus on the planning of maneuver. The Tactical level requires a
focus on the conduct of the maneuver on the ground.
The planning of
maneuver involves the displacement and concentration of multi-service
forces. This occurs both before and during the battle.
They are more properly in the realm of tactics, however.
usually more concerned with the moral or psychological aspects of warfare.
The objective of the operational level is the defeat of an enemy force
usually by maneuver. The key element is that it seeks to attack the enemy's
plan. Indirect means are the preferred method. However, there may be some
situations that require direct means to be used.