1. Iraqi NBC Concerns.
Iraq acquired equipment and materials under the cover of pesticide production to establish the Samarra
chemical weapons production complex. At Samarra, Iraq produced Sulfur Mustard and later the Nerve
Agents, GA, GB, and GF. Iraq also made major money and manpower investments in its nuclear
In July 1995, Iraq admitted to conducting an offensive BW program. In August 1995, Iraq admitted it
had filled aerial bombs and missile warheads with the BW Agents, Botulinum Toxin and Anthrax. Iraq
also produced Ricin and T2 Mycotoxin, and researched Smallpox. The intended targets were Israel
and the coalition forces. While the Iraqi BW infrastructure was damaged in Operation Desert Storm,
critical BW equipment was hidden. Iraq could resume BW weapons production within weeks.
2. Iraq Chemical/Biological Weapons Threat in Desert Storm.
When United Nations Coalition Forces deployed in Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm, Iraq
possessed a flexible arsenal of Chemical Biological Warfare (CBW) agents and delivery systems,
Figure 2-6. Iraq's CBW production facilities were priority targets. There is much speculation on why
Iraq did not use chemical weapons. Perhaps the most important deterrent was fear of retaliation,
coupled with Allied NBC Defense Preparedness. Nonetheless, Iraq's ability to credibly threaten CB
attacks required the UN Coalition Forces to expend scarce resources equipping, training, and planning
to cope with such attacks.
3. South Asia.
India, Pakistan's rival, exploded a nuclear device in 1974. Like India, Pakistan could now quickly
assemble nuclear weapons. Both nations have ballistic missile programs for which nuclear warheads
could be produced. Both nations have pursued chemical weapons programs. Neither nation has
signed the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty.
PART D: OTHER NBC THREAT AREAS
1. The Far East.
In the Far East, China is the most formidable NBC Threat. China is assessed to have 250 to 300
nuclear warheads, deliverable by land and sea-based missiles and by bomber aircraft. China
conducted a number of nuclear tests in 1995. It is believed that China's nuclear program now centers
on producing lighter, more powerful warheads. China has a variety of CW agents and delivery