processing illegal drugs. In 1980, French Police uncovered a lab capable of producing Botulinum Toxin
in a Paris apartment used by the Red Army Faction. Materials can be stolen from military or civilian
facilities or acquired from sponsor states. There have been a number of threats and attempted
extortions involving CB agents.
The Tokyo subway attack in March 1995 was not the first threat or attempt at terrorist use of CB
agents. It was the first successful terrorist type of CB agent attack, Figure 2-8. At 0820 in the morning,
fumes were reported at 16 stations on the subway lines. Symptoms included eye and lung irritation.
Some 5,500 persons were injured. Twelve persons died. Police raids on the Aum Shinri Kyo Cult
uncovered tons of chemicals, materials for producing Clostridium Botulinum, and a document
describing how to enrich Uranium using lasers.
PART F: INTEGRATING CHEMICAL WEAPONS
In determining how an enemy may employ chemical weapons, you must view them as did the former
Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was expert in chemical warfare, and trained many of the forces that
now possess chemical weapons. They did not draw a distinction between chemical and conventional
weapons when planning chemical strikes. Rather, they exploited the unique properties of chemical
weapons to support the scheme of fire and maneuver.
While the U.S. must prepare for global contingencies, regional powers generally anticipate particular
conflicts, usually on their borders. By studying their forces, their strategic objectives, and the terrain
they must fight on, you can draw reasonable conclusions about the war fighting doctrine they will
employ. In the same way, CW employment doctrine is dependent on conventional doctrine, and on
chemical warfare capability.
1. Chemical Weapons Employment.
Non-persistent Chemical Agents, such as Hydrogen Cyanide or Sarin, complement high-explosive
munitions. When used across a defender's front, they create a vapor hazard that penetrates the
defensive structures that protect troops from high-explosives. The purpose of non-persistent CW
strikes is to kill troops. The attack is planned so that the CW agent will have dissipated by the time
attacking ground forces arrive.
Blister Agent or persistent Nerve Agent is used on deeper targets. The purpose of persistent agent
strikes is to deny the use of weapons, equipment or terrain. When artillery units, headquarters, logistics
sites and lines of communication are attacked with persistent agent, the defender is denied fire support,
troop control, and timely reinforcement and resupply.