only significant source of residual radiation from an airburst weapon
is induced activity in the soil of a limited circular pattern directly
beneath the point of burst.
The EMP is a broad band-width pulse of electromagnetic energy of a
short duration produced by a nuclear burst. The range of effect is
measured in hundreds of kilometers for a high-altitude airburst and
tens of kilometers for a surface burst. It does not affect personnel
systems. Steps to counter EMP include:
Enclose electronic equipment in metal containers
b. Effect of Thermal Radiation on the Body.
Thermal radiation can cause flash burns, similar to sunburn.
difference is that flash burns happen very quickly.
These burns may
be first degree, second degree, or third degree, depending upon how
close the soldier is to the nuclear burst.
induced or fallout, do not damage materiel; they damage human tissues.
When the body absorbs radiation, the radiation kills the body's cells.
The amount of radiation a soldier can receive and still survive
depends on such factors as the soldier's weight, general state of
health, personal biochemistry, and previous exposure to radiation.
Radiation doses are measured in units called centigray (cGy). Fewer
than 5 percent of soldiers who receive a dose of 0 to 70 cGy will show
early symptoms of radiation poisoning. Almost all soldiers receiving
800 cGy will show symptoms, and fatalities will be more than 50
percent within 45 days, shown in Table 1-1.
d. Symptoms of Radiation Poisoning.
Symptoms of radiation poisoning may occur immediately if the soldier
receives a very high dose. Otherwise, the symptoms will appear within
a few hours. Depending upon the dosage received, the symptoms may
disappear after a short time and not return, or they may return within
a few days or not for several weeks. When the symptoms do reappear,
they may be more severe than they were initially and can result in
death. Radiation symptoms include: Weakness, nausea, vomiting or dry
heaving, diarrhea, lethargy, depression, mental disorientation, shock
and coma. At present there is no cure for radiation sickness;
however, the symptoms can be treated.