The casualty-producing effects of a nuclear explosion are blast,
usually limited to those for burns caused by thermal radiation and
injuries caused by the blast wave. Self-aid and first aid for blast
or thermal injuries will be the same as for normal battlefield
Psychological casualties (personnel in mental shock from the attack)
should receive treatment ordinarily given for regular shock.
Symptoms of radiation sickness may not appear immediately. However,
if symptoms do appear, medication can ease the pain and relieve the
effects of nausea and diarrhea.
(2) Preparation for Fallout.
Depending on whether the burst was an airburst, a surface burst, or a
subsurface burst, there may be a large amount of fallout or very
little. As soon as the blast wave has passed, all personnel should
begin preparations to protect themselves, their equipment, and
supplies from fallout. They should seal everything possible. They
should make every effort to keep fallout out of foxholes and other
shelters. They should keep hatches, doors, windows, and other
openings closed. Designated individuals begin monitoring with RADIAC
instruments to detect any fallout arriving in the unit. RADIAC
instruments usually used to detect and measure radioactivity include
the IM-174 Series RADIACmeter for area monitoring and surveys and the
AN/PDR-27 RADIAC Set for monitoring personnel, food, and equipment.
When warned of the arrival of fallout, individuals take cover and
remain protected until fallout has stopped or until they receive other
Personnel should seek shelter in places that provide shielding against
the radiation from fallout. Lead, steel, concrete, and earth all
provide protection. Overhead protection is essential. Earth absorbs
radiation; therefore, the deeper the foxhole, the greater the
protection. If fallout arrives when you are out in the open, it is
better to enter available shelter with some fallout on you than to
remain outside without shielding.
(3) Standard Alarms to Signal Approach of Fallout.
Four types of alarms signal the approach of fallout. They are the
vocal alarm, the sound alarms, the visual signal, and the color-coded