Figure 24. Herringbone
6. Integrate Air Defense Capabilities. Vehicles that have weapons effective against air
threats should be integrated into the convoy every fourth or fifth vehicle if possible. Many simple,
commonsense measures can be taken by a small unit to avoid attack and to limit damage if
7. Resolve Question of Firing Back or Not Firing Back. The question of whether or not to
use active air defense measures when a convoy comes under attack is one for local resolution. The
decision must be made before the convoy begins so that the response can be automatic--either
return fire or do not fire. Reasons favoring a decision to fire:
a. Attacking aircraft may be damaged or killed by small arms fire.
b. A pilot's awareness of being under heavy fire may cause the attack to be abandoned or,
through lack of concentration, cause the ordnance to be delivered inaccurately.
c. Personnel take a great deal of satisfaction shooting back at an attacker.
reasons to not fire are:
a. Attack speeds will be around 300 to 400 knots, so the time that the aircraft will be
within small arms range is probably not more than one or two seconds.
b. In an open column, the distance between vehicles is so great that a large volume of fire
cannot be achieved and effectiveness is decreased.
c. Generally, attacking aircraft will not pass over your convoy within small arms range.
The maximum effective range of the types of weapons normally available to you for convoy
defense will probably not exceed 500 meters.