all the light; consequently, it is a light shade. The long object on the right could be a
greenhouse. The glass roof reflects the light shining on it. The dark roof of the office
absorbs the light.
Figure 1-4. Shade.
5. Surroundings. This factor is applied as an aid in the analysis in instances where an
object under consideration is:
a. One of a number of similarly shaped objects, for example, shellholes or machine-
Too small to be identified by size, shape, or shadow.
c. Unidentifiable after its size, shape, shadow, or shade have been considered.
Then it is necessary to note the object in relation to other objects and features associated
with or surrounding it. For example, antitank positions are usually found in close proximity
to roadblocks; machine-gun positions usually line airstrips; radar units complement
antiaircraft positions; manufacturing plants usually have electric transformer yards in the
d. Of the five factors of identification, surroundings are probably the most important
to military identification. To make use of surroundings fully, you should be familiar with the
enemy's weapons and equipment, organization and tactics, and the topographic and
geographic aspects of the area of interest. The items in Figure 1-5 are groups of
buildings. Both building groups are similar, but in different surroundings they are
identified differently. Surrounded by cultivated fields, the group on the left becomes a
farm with a house, barn, and silo. A railroad track added to the group of buildings on the
right changes the analysis to a railroad station with a storage buildings and a water tank.
Figure 1-5. Surroundings.