(1) Chimneys, stacks, and vents all serve similar purposes (as in mechanical
processing industrious) --to dispose of heat, waste gases, and fine dust.
are built of masonry or sheet metal, and vary in diameter and height.
chemical plants stacks are common and help identify a single building or piece of
equipment, such as boiler houses and pipe furnaces. Vents are common on processing
buildings and dispose of heat, dust, and fumes (Figures A1 thru A10).
cooled by exposure to the air and by evaporation in these structures, and then
reused. The cooled water is then reused (Figures A-11 and A-12).
(3) Kilns are used to dry bulk materials.
Rotary kilns look like slightly
inclined tanks or long tubes, while vertical kilns appear as complex towerlike,
tanklike, and boxlike structures (Figures A-13 thru A-16).
(4) Silos, tanks, hoppers, and bunkers are used for storage; some tanks have
Silos, tall, covered cylindrical containers, hold dry bulk
materials. Tanks are subdivided into closed vertical, closed horizontal, and open.
Covered round tanks hold a wide range of liquids as well as gases in specially
Horizontal tanks with round ends usually hold gases under
Most of the low open tanks are used for processing.
Spray ponds are
usually square or rectangular.
Tanks associated with other components aid in
Hoppers and bunkers hold bulk goods temporarily and reveal the
flow of materials (Figures A-17 thru A-37).
(5) Pipelines, conveyors, cranes, and mobile equipment are used to handle or
Pipelines are found in all chemical plants and frequently
seen in large numbers.
Conveyors, either inclined or horizontal, housed or open,
appear wider than pipelines and have flat surfaces.
Cranes handle bulk raw
materials such as coal, bauxite, and oyster shells (Figures A-38 thru A-52).
(6) Complex equipment is frequently used in chemical plants; it appears
towerlike, tanklike, or boxlike. Towerlike equipment is represented by gas retorts
and shell stalls.
Boxlike equipment includes hydrogenation stalls (Figures A-53