respiratory system by damaging the lungs and, in extreme cases,
causing the lungs to fill with liquid. These agents are colorless and
have an odor resembling new-mown hay, grass, or green corn. They may
cause cigarettes to have an offensive or bland taste.
Tightness in chest
b. Other Effects of a Chemical Attack.
The primary reason for using chemical weapons is to cause casualties;
however, a secondary reason is to contaminate equipment, supplies, and
terrain. Even the detonation of a chemical munition has very little
destructive effect on equipment and installations.
Recognition of a Biological Attack.
The Threat may use biological agents on different targets to produce
varying effects; however, the ultimate objective of Threat use of
biological agents is to reduce the ability of US Forces to fight.
Threat Forces may accomplish this objective by killing or
incapacitating troops and/or by creating food and supply shortages.
Biological antipersonnel agents are those that are effective directly
against humans. Threat Forces may select these agents on the basis of
their ability to cause death or disability through disease. These
agents may include Bacteria, Rickettsiae, Viruses, or Fungi.
Bacteria can cause such diseases in humans as Scarlet Fever,
Meningococcal Meningitis, Gonorrhea, Anthrax, Syphilis, and Salmonella
Food Poisoning. Rickettsiae are parasites that produce diseases, such
as Typhus Fever and Spotted Fever. Viruses cause diseases, such as
Influenza, Rabies, Smallpox, Yellow Fever, Infectious Hepatitis,
Mumps, and Measles. Fungi cause diseases that may resemble Influenza
in milder cases or chronic infections involving all organs of the
A very small number of microorganisms will set up an infection; the
agents reproduce in the host body to bring about disease. Large-scale
dissemination of a biological agent may cause an outbreak of disease