VOLUME 8, CENTRAL EUROPE
There are 35 separate volumes covering all areas of the world.
Predictions are for minimum and maximum sunspot periods. Some of the
more common terms are:
MUF (Maximum Usable Frequency): The highest frequency which is
expected to be completely reflected from the ionosphere on at least
50 percent of the days of the month.
FOT (Optimum Traffic Frequency): The highest frequency that will be
reflected from the ionosphere on at least 90 percent of the days of
LUF (Lowest Usable Frequency): The lowest frequency that will
reflected from the ionosphere on at least 90 percent of the days
the month. When there is no frequency that will provide at least
percent reliability, the LUF will be listed followed by a letter
represent the reliability.
80 to 89 percent reliability
60 to 79 percent reliability
40 to 59 percent reliability
20 to 39 percent reliability
The volumes cover
six two-month periods: January-February, March-
There is a chart that covers each two-month period listing the FOT
and MUF over a 24 hour period. Additional charts list the LUF over a
24 hour period. The charts cover the following distances: 100, 250,
500, 750, 1,000 and 1500 tiles.
Predictions are given for sunspot
minimum and sunspot maximum.
The LUF charts are prepared for the
Half-wave horizontal dipole thirty-three feet high.
Half-wave horizontal dipole sixty-six feet high.
Fifteen foot vertical whip.
Thirty-two foot whip.
Sloping long wire.
Other antenna types are listed, but this subcourse covers only those
antennas that are considered practical from a field point of view.