d. Stacks, chimneys, vents and coolers. Most heavy processing industrial facilities require
steam, furnaces, boilers, ovens, or stoves for production. These plants are identifiable by the
presence of tall stacks for disposal of gases, steam, smoke, or other consumed lighter-than-air
e. Transportation access facilities. All industries require some access for transporting raw
materials to the facility for production or consumption (in the case of fuel), and for shipment of the
finished product from the facility. You may observe any of the following transportation facilities at
an industrial complex:
Railroads. Large industries usually have access by railroad.
(2) Ports. Those industries located adjacent to large lakes, rivers, or seas will usually
have ship docking facilities.
(3) Highways. Virtually ALL industries are accessible by highways. Evidence of trailer
trucks, flatbeds, or tank trucks will indicate the probable use of such vehicles for industrial
(4) Airstrips. Some industrial products may be airshipped. Clearly, in such a case, a
landing strip or helipad (in the case of helicopters) would be essential.
f. Production or fabrication facilities. Depending upon the type of industry, the production or
fabrication buildings are usually identifiable. Fabrication industries are categorized by the buildings
which shelter the equipment and materials used in fabrication and assembly, the lack of handling
and storage facilities of bulk materials, the lack of outdoor equipment other than cranes, and little
visible waste. The most obvious and abundant image components are the buildings-either large or
small, simple or complex.
PART B: IMAGE COMPONENTS OF INDUSTRIES IN GENERAL
1. Each industry has a characteristic set of raw materials, equipment, buildings, facilities, waste
materials, and end products. You can readily identify some of these components on imagery.
However, some components you cannot directly observe; therefore you should rely on inferred
clues. These clues include the shape or position of buildings, type and number of stacks, type of
waste material, etc.
2. Most of the time the IA can identify an industrial facility from image components. However,
this task is often complicated. First, not all industries are completely identifiable from their external
appearance since some industries do not manifest enough observable image components to
classify them as specific types. Second, the appearance of an industrial facility is often
complicated by the presence of coincidental