logistics activities that support the FARP become readily apparent. FARPs should
not be placed where they will negate effective air defense coverage.
Normally, three types of obstacles are considered during airspace analysis.
* Obstacles to the effective employment of air defense target acquisition or
* Obstacles which force aircraft to employ a particular profile or attack route
or to gain excessive altitude (above 22.8 meters in height).
Obstacles to the effective employment of air defense target acquisition or weapons
systems include terrain which masks LOS, built-up areas (especially areas with tall
buildings), and vegetation. Another major obstacle to the effective employment of
an air defense system is the maximum effective range of the system itself. Thus,
when considering obstacles during airspace analysis, the analyst must consider that
air defense systems require LOS to the target and overlapping coverage of the
Obstacles which restrict NOE flight include tall trees, radio, television and
obscurants, and tall buildings. The capabilities of aircraft terrain-avoidance
radars restrict high-performance aircraft and cruise missile NOE flight, and while
not an obstacle in the strictest sense, dictate the minimum attack altitude and the
maximum aircraft attack speed.
A low-level obstacle that promotes NOE flight is the electronic ground clutter
created when an aircraft flies near the ground. Again, although not an obstacle in
the strictest sense, ground clutter can effectively conceal aircraft from air
defense systems and from other aircraft not equipped with sophisticated look down-
shoot down radars. Ground clutter is normally at its worst in heavily forested or
Obstacles that force aircraft to gain excessive altitude or to adopt a particular
attack profile or attack route include mountains, large hill masses, built-up
areas, and excessively tall trees. Of particular interest are obstacles which
restrict lateral movement within the air avenue of approach or mobility corridor.
These obstacles have the same effect on aircraft as ground obstacles; that is,
canalizing movement and restricting evasive action. They often become key terrain
for the employment of air defense weapons systems. A key obstacle to aircraft