This is the process of drilling a hole (well) from the
surface of the earth down to the rock-enclosed oil reservoir.
consists essentially of a derrick, drilling tools, and a power source.
This operation involves tapping (draining) the oil
reservoir. After the well has been drilled the oil may flow naturally, or it may
have to be pumped to the surface.
There are various devices for controlling
naturally flowing wells, and many different types of pumping equipment.
(c) Field Processing involves the removal of such substances as salt water,
sulphur, and gas from the crude oil before shipment.
The equipment for field
processing is varied and found at central locations and at the individual well
(d) Gathering and Field Storage. In this process the oil from a number of
wells in a field is collected by pipelines and conveyed to a central point for
either shipment or field processing.
The gathering system consists of pipes,
pumps, and tanks. Oil is temporarily stored at different points in the gathering
While awaiting shipment, oil is kept in large field storage or "lease"
tanks (Figure 2-46).
Figure 2-46. Oil Gathering and Storage.
f. Petroleum production flow.
This process originates in the oil fields where
the crude oil is stored until shipment.
Once the crude oil arrives at the
petroleum processing industry it then goes through several processing units where
final products are then stored (Figures 2-47 and 2-48).