often not well understood or prepared. The survey team may assist the command in formulating effective EEFI
during the survey.
When EEFI have not been determined, the commander is responsible for the operation or activity to be
surveyed must establish them. Remember the EEFI must be limited to those critical aspects of the operation
which must be protected for the mission to succeed. Without the establishment of EEFI, there can be no
specifics determined as to whether or not an actual security weakness exists.
OPSEC surveys are not inspections in the traditional sense, and no grades or ratings will be awarded as a result
of the survey. Nor are surveys a check on the command's adherence to security directives. In this regard,
survey teams should be aware that slavish adherence to some security measures can provide indicators of
friendly intentions and that overly stringent application of security measures can actually impede operational
If survey teams strive to maintain confidentiality concerning their sources of information, individuals may more
freely discuss operations and procedures.
The two basic types of OPSEC surveys are command and formal. A command survey is performed using only
personnel assigned to the surveyed command and concentrates on events which transpired within that particular
command. A formal survey involves the formation of a survey team comprised of members from inside and
outside the command. This survey will normally cross command lines (after prior coordination), to survey
supporting and related operations and activities.
OPSEC survey procedures. Each OPSEC survey conducted must be tailored to the needs of the surveyed
unit; therefore, each survey will have unique characteristics. However, there are certain common procedural
activities which exist. These can be divided into planning, the field survey, analysis, and reporting phases.
Preparations for an OPSEC survey should begin well in advance of the field survey phase. The required
leadtime will depend on the nature and complexity of the operation and activities to be surveyed (combat
operation, peacetime operational activity, operational test and evaluation, and so on). Sufficient time must be
allotted in the planning phase for thorough review of pertinent documentation, formal and informal coordination
and discussions, and careful preparation of functional outlines. Planning phase actions normally include:
Development of the purpose and scope of the survey.
Selection of team personnel.
Familiarization with survey techniques (as required).
Review of EEFI.
Familiarization with operation/activity to be surveyed.
Arranging empirical studies.
Development of functional outlines.
Announcement of survey to surveyed command(s).