the OPSEC survey report will be directly affected if findings are reported in areas in which the hostile
threat/friendly vulnerabilities is minimal or nonexistent. The all-source threat assessment should address the
Knowledge of foreign intelligence collection activities and interests pertinent to the area concerned.
Possible espionage threats.
Human observation threats.
Open source exploitation threats.
Fixed signals intelligence (SIGINT), acoustic intelligence (ACINT), and radar collection capabilities.
Mobile systems with technical collection capabilities, such as satellites, surface ships, trucks/vans,
submarines, aircraft, and so on. For each mobile system, list collection capabilities.
The foreign intelligence process is composed of three parts: Information gathering and reporting, information
collection management, and information processing and evaluation.
Information gathering covers those hostile espionage efforts to obtain sensitive materials, to monitor
detectable friendly activities and to exploit open sources. Reporting consists of the means available to
communicate information in time for it to be useful.
Information collection management consists of the command and control of foreign information
gathering resources. The primary objective is effective utilization of these assets to satisfy the needs of
enemy decision makers and planners.
Information processing and evaluation consists of foreign efforts to interpret collected materials, and to
piece together information so as to draw conclusions to affect the course of events.
All three of the foreign intelligence processes are of concern to OPSEC. An effective OPSEC survey must be
based on the most current intelligence threat information keyed to the specific operation/activity to be surveyed.
OPERATIONAL/ACTIVITY FAMILIARIZATION. The first step in what will become a major function of the
survey is to obtain a thorough understanding of the operation plans, orders, standing operating procedures
(SOP), or other directives bearing on the surveyed operation or activity. This initial review familiarizes team
members with the mission, concept of operations, tasking, organizational structure, command relationships, and
identifies most of the organizations participating in the surveyed activity (others will be identified as the survey
EMPIRICAL STUDIES. Empirical studies generally simulate aspects of the adversary intelligence threat, and
are used to support vulnerability findings, or to identify vulnerabilities which cannot be determined by the
OPSEC survey team through interviews and observations.
Such studies are generally performed in time for their products to be provided to the OPSEC team during the
field or analytic phase of the survey. An example of an empirical study is signals monitoring. Computer
modeling and other laboratory simulations of the enemy threat may also be useful to the OPSEC team. Because
these studies are performed by elements of the command and organizations external to the command sponsoring
the OPSEC survey team, arrangements should be made as far in advance of the survey as possible.
FUNCTIONAL OUTLINE DEVELOPMENT