d. As you have seen, a LOB is a single line of bearing. Where two LOB
intersect you have a cut and where three LOBs intersect you can determine a
fairly accurate location or fix. As a general guideline, at least three ground
based DF systems must be in a position to acquire an enemy transmitter before
you can get an accurate location.
If you are using an airborne DF platform
(i.e., join surveillance target attack radar system (J-STARS), or QUICKFIX-II,
only one system is needed as it provides multiple LOB's along its' flight path
enabling a relatively fast fix on an enemy transmitter.
intercept, identify, and locate enemy emitters.
They represent a source of
employment of combat forces. ES support the destruction and jamming of enemy
command, control and communications systems through acquisition and reporting
of targetable data. ES also support the commanders efforts to counter enemy
2. Electronic Attack (EA).
a. The effectiveness of EW is dependent on the degree to which it is
integrated into the commander's scheme of fire and maneuver. Full integration
is best achieved by systematic planning and full understanding of employment
factors. The G3 supervises the integration of EA into the scheme of fire and
and G3 staff operate together to plan the attack of high payoff targets (HPT)
and support the commanders concept of operations.
EA improves the
effectiveness of fire support when employed together with fire.
support requires more accurate target location, jamming may be the preferred
attack means for certain targets. Other EA operations are planned to disrupt
enemy command and control (C2).
(IPB) is used throughout the EW planning process.
Command, control, and
security, military deception, jamming, and physical destruction, supported by
intelligence, to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy adversary
command, control, and communications (C3) capabilities and to protect friendly
C3 capabilities against such action. Templates are used to focus EW operations
on identified HPTs and to determine defensive EW measures to defeat enemy
counter-C3 efforts. IPB applications and HPT determination are described in FM
34-130 and FM 6-20-10.
b. EA degrade or disrupt and deceive threat emitters and collection
systems. In modem warfare, EA has assumed crucial significance because of the
widespread use of electronic devices for all facets of military operations.
The two components of EA, electronmagnetic jamming and electronmagnetic
Electronmagnetic deception is subdivided into simulative electronmagnetic
deception (SED), manipulative electronmagnetic deception (MED), and imitative
Jamming and deception, when properly integrated
into the planning process, can disrupt and degrade the enemy's C3.
c. Electronmagnetic jamming is the deliberate radiation, reradiation, or
reflection of electromagnetic energy to prevent or degrade the reception of
information by a receiver.
Radio and radar receivers tuned to a given
frequency are jammed by delivering more power to the receiver to prevent it
from receiving the intended signal. In general, the effectiveness of jamming
depends on relative power between transmitter and jammer; relative distance
between transmitter, jammer, and receiver on terrain barriers, and on whether
or not the receiver is using a directional