f. In extreme situations, EA can be used to protect friendly command,
control and communications. Jamming systems may be used as high-powered radios
to transmit a key message through enemy jamming.
Additionally, jammers may
protect friendly communications by using directional antennas to jam known
friendly communications, to screen and prevent enemy intercept.
takes multiple jammers to cover the deployed enemy collectors, and can place
our jammers at great risk.
Expendable jammers (EXJAMS) may also be used to
screen friendly communications if their emplacement near enemy SIGINT sites is
g. Electronmagnetic deception is directed against communications and can
also be used effectively against noncommunications equipment like radar and
navigational aids. There are three categories of electronmagnetic deception:
(1) Manipulative Electronmagnetic Deception (MED).
friendly electromagnetic emissions to eliminate revealing
or to convey
misleading information that may be used by threat forces.
(2) Imitative Electronmagnetic Deception (IED).
radiations into threat channels that imitate threat emissions.
electromagnetic emissions to represent friendly notional or actual capabilities
to mislead threat forces.
3. Electronic Protection (EP).
a. EP is that component of EW involving actions taken to ensure effective
friendly use of the electromagnetic spectrum despite the enemy's use of EW. EP
involves the integration of policy, procedures, and design, and is aimed at
countering the success of enemy ES and EA activity, as Figure 1-5 depicts.
Functional Association of EP.