Toxins are produced by pathogens, and also by snakes, spiders, sea creatures, and plants. BW
researchers can now produce some toxins through chemical processes or genetic engineering. Toxins
are faster acting and more stable than live pathogens, and could be used against tactical targets.
Known biological warfare agents include: Anthrax, Plague, Cholera, Smallpox, Tularemia, Q Fever,
Ricin, and Botulinum Toxin.
At least eleven states are developing BW weapons. Some of these states, like Iraq, have hidden their
BW programs under the guise of legitimate medical research. There is little to distinguish a vaccine or
pharmaceutical plant from a BW facility. Biological warfare production requires no specialized
equipment. Threat states do not need to keep stockpiles of biological weapons. Through
biotechnology, they can quickly produce the quantities of BW agent needed with small starter cultures.
Biological weapons can have a wider area effect than chemical or even nuclear weapons. A BW aerial
spray of 100 kilometers, from an unmanned aerial vehicle, could affect personnel in an area 180
kilometers deep. BW delivery means could also include missiles, aerosol generators, artillery, and
4. Chemical Warfare Agents.
Chemical warfare agents can be classified by their effects on the body. These agents are: Blood,
Choking, Blister, and Nerve. See Figure 2-3. Blood Agent interferes with the transfer of oxygen,
suffocating the victim. Hydrogen Cyanide is a Blood Agent which kills and dissipates quickly.
Figure 2-3. Chemical Warfare Agents