8. Determine The Threat Courses Of Action
Determine both the threat air and ground course of action and integrate the results of the previous
information into a meaningful conclusion. Given what threat air and missile forces prefer to do
and the effects of the operational environment, what are the enemy's likely objectives and what
COAs are available to him? The G2/S2 develops enemy threat models that depict the threat's air
and missile COAs. They also prepare event templates and matrices that focus intelligence
collection on identifying which COA the threat will execute. The process of developing these
templates and matrices is covered in depth in FM 34-130.
This overview is a reasonable assessment of the air threat to US Army ground units. Air attack of
ground units can certainly be expected, but they will not always be overwhelming. Pilots of these
aircraft will have problems in target acquisition, short reaction times, inaccurate deliveries, limited
lethal effect, and survival. Small arms are effective (Figure 11). Dedicated application of the
procedures outlined in this lesson can reduce the effectiveness of enemy air attack.
Figure 11. Effective Small Arms