PART B - ESTABLISH AIR ATTACK WARNING SYSTEM
In the past, the US Army has fought on the battlefield with little concern about surveillance or
attack from the air. However, we could face a significant air threat in our next war or military
operation. Potential enemies could have significant air capabilities. We can expect that friendly
units will be targeted and attacked from the air as well as from the ground.
Because air defense artillery has limited resources, many Army units and facilities will not receive
dedicated air defense protection. These units and facilities must be prepared to protect themselves.
All units must reduce their vulnerability to air action by implementing passive and active air
1. Recognize Air Defense Warnings. The air defense command and control structure uses air
defense warnings (ADW), local air defense warnings (LADW), and directed early warning to alert
all members of the force of hostile air activities. Non ADA units may monitor ADA early warning
nets. These nets contain additional information for ADA units to include more detailed track
information. However, the format will follow the SALUTE report format. Track locations will be
reported using the same systems as directed early warning. You may consult unit signal operating
instructions (SOI) to find the appropriate frequencies to monitor.
2. Identify Air Attack Warnings (ADW). Air defense warnings represent the air defense
commander's evaluation of the probability of air surveillance or attack. They are routinely issued
by the area air defense commander for dissemination throughout the entire theater of operations.
Any commander may issue a higher level of warning for his command, but not a lower level. The
three ADWs are red, yellow, and white. They are defined as follows:
a. ADW Red. Attack by hostile air platforms is imminent or in progress. This means
that hostile air platforms are within a respective area of operations or in the immediate vicinity of a
respective area of operations with a high probability of entry.
b. ADW Yellow. Attack by hostile air platforms is probable. Means that hostile or
unknown air platforms are enroute toward a respective area of operations.
c. ADW White. Attack by hostile air platforms is improbable. ADW white can be
declared either before ADW yellow or ADW red.
3. Identify Local Air Defense Warnings (LADW). While ADWs describe the probability of
hostile air action over the entire theater, LADWs tell you what the air threat is for a specific part
of the battlefield. They also require specific air defense reactions from receiving units.
Commanders must establish in their TSOPs what they want their units to do when a LADW is
received. Provide the local air defense warning status: